The vestiges of the Fortress of Civitella in Val di Chiana rise above the chief town that once was fortified. The castle is located on one of the highest hills set between the Val d'Ambra and the Val di Chiana. It represents one of the best preserved Lombard strongholds raised in the area between the VI and the VII centuries. The village beyond t, moreover, still keeps most of the ancient walls that built with the aim to protect the first inhabitants who had settled around the fortress.
The completion of this imposing structure lasted for a long time until the XIII century, approximately, when it assumed a definitive appearance. Initially, it was thought to be a Lombard base dating to the Middle Ages and that had been built on a pre-existent Roman village. Its main function was to control a vast portion of territory both in the Val d'Ambra and in the Val di Chiana and to control the roads that crossed the two valleys. It is thought that the Fortress overlooking the village might have been built around the XII century.
In 1248, the Fortress of Civitella was chosen as the residence of Guglielmino degli Ubertini, bishop of Arezzo (who died in 1289) and the leader of Arezzo's Guelph party. Thus, the castle became the core of the anti-Ghibelline operations in the territory of Arezzo until the Guelfs' attack of 1265 that destroyed it. Finally, the bishop won the conflict and in 1272 he went back to Arezzo where he settled the works of reconstruction of the stronghold, which fell in the Florentines' hands in the XIV century.
Still in the XIV century, the castle had two doors, one leading to the inside of the fortified village and the other linked to the keep, the castle's large tower, through a gallery. Inside the walls, there was also room the Bishop's base of the garrison and for numerous defence towers. Unfortunately, even if the structure of the complex is still visible, it went through irreparable damage during the Nazi-Fascist retaliations in 1944.
The walls are quite well preserved and they are the most magnificent works among those ordered by the bishop Guglielmino di Arezzo during the fortification works of 1272. Still today, some of the ramparts or squared towers, can be seen. They were raised to control the walls and, according to previsions, they should have defended the town built around the castle. Moreover, a second wall separates the stronghold from the houses.