The town of Campiglia Marittima includes two urban centres of a certain relief, Campiglia, the chief town, and Venturina, for a population of about 12,000 inhabitants. The parish of San Giovanni and the XII-century Rocca San Silvestro can be admired in its territory.
The history of Campiglia has Medieval origins dating to the VIII century, when one of the many castles built by the counts Della Gherardesca, rulers of the Val di Cornia, was built in place of the modern town. Therefore, the stronghold was the original nucleus of the modern chief town and it is set on top of the hill from where both the sea and the lands governed by powerful feudatories can be seen.
In the XII and the XIII centuries, also many religious buildings still present in the territory rose, among them the church of San Giovanni and of San Lorenzo. In the XIV century, the annexation to the Pisan Republic occurred. Pisa extended its authority on the Della Gherardesca's dominions, even if they were allowed to maintain a certain influence and authority in the area. Florence became the owner of the stronghold in 1406 and it destined Campiglia to become part of the Tuscan Grand Duchy that dominated the modern era until the creation of the Kingdom of Italy.
As far as Venturina is concerned, this is a XVIII-century town with a story characterized by the favourable position that its territory obtained with the construction of the Regia Emilia Way settled by the Lorraine in the XVIII century. Thanks to reclamations works, the town could immediately develop as an important agricultural centre. Its first built-up area was called Caldana and it referred to the ancient thermal waters that the Romans had used before paludification obliged them to abandon the area. The remains of a construction that can be seen near the "mulinetto" and that date to the Augustan times testify their passage.
Another human presence that left its traces at few kilometres from the chief town is represented by the Etruscans, whose melting pots have been found near Madonna di Fucinaia, where also the homonym church rises. Still near this place, the Parco Archeominerario of San Silvestro was founded in 1996, where it is possible to visit the remains of an ancient village built in the X century near some mines and abandoned at the half of the XIV century.